Nanoelectronics & Spintronics Session

Nanoelectronics & Spintronics Session

Nanoelectronics & Spintronics Session

Chair: Ilan Shalish (BGU)



Andras Kis (EPFL)
Keynote Speaker

Logic-in-Memory Based on an Atomically Thin Semiconductor

The growing importance of applications based on machine learning is driving the need to develop dedicated, energy-efficient electronic hardware. Compared with von-Neumann architectures, brain-inspired in-memory computing uses the same basic device structure for logic operations and data storage, thus promising to reduce the energy cost of data-centric computing significantly. Two-dimensional materials such as semiconducting MoS2 could stand out as a promising candidate to face this obstacle thanks to their exceptional electrical and mechanical properties. Here, we show that wafer-scale grown MoS2 can be used as an active channel material for developing logic-in-memory devices and circuits based on floating-gate field-effect transistors (FGFET). The conductance of our FGFETs can be precisely and continuously tuned, allowing us to use them as building blocks for reconfigurable logic circuits where logic operations can be directly performed using the memory elements. We show that this design can be simply extended to implement more complex programmable logic and functionally complete sets of functions. Our findings highlight the potential of atomically thin semiconductors for the development of next-generation low-power electronics.



Zeev Zalevsky (BIU)
Keynote Speaker

Silicon-integratable tunable photonic nano-circuitry involving energetically efficient and hardware security architecture

In this presentation I will discuss optical cascadable Boolean data processing modules based upon linear optics i.e. functioning in regular silicon wafer without the need of integrating additional materials to enhance various nonlinear optical effects. This capability for cascading logic gates is obtained via intra-bit encoding. Such photonic Boolean logic gates that are based upon multi modal interference, are the building blocks of any higher order processor and the fact that they can be integrated as devices in conventional silicon wafers is highly important to the field of silicon photonics.
In addition, I will present technology allowing enhancing the energetic efficiency of the silicon processing circuit and reducing its power dissipation. The energetic efficiency enhancement will be obtained due to two novel building architectures: (1) Connecting electronic and photonic processing units via wireless interconnects. That way hybrid photonic and electronic processing units could work together side by side while the connectivity between them will be losses reduced due to the proposed wireless connectors. The connectors are based upon nano antennas converting surface plasmonic currents to photonic free space radiation and vice versa. (2) Encoding the transmitted information via time and frequency domains in such a way that information transmission is to be performed at lower SNR. The information could be transmitted much below the noise level and yet being detectable by the receiver unit. The concept is based upon physical level encryption or cyber photonic configuration that could also enhance the hardware security of the silicon circuitry in which the proposed configuration is being deployed.



Ron Folman (BGU)
Invited Speaker

Quantum optics on the atom chip

Atom chips provide an excellent tool for fundamental studies as well as technological applications. In our group, several interferometry experiments have been done with a BEC on an atom chip [1] examining different effects. For example, we studied fluctuations in the nearby environment by an interference of atoms trapped in a magnetic lattice very close (5μm) to a room temperature surface [2,3]. We realized a new interferometry scheme of self-interfering clocks and showed, in a proof-of-principle experiment, how this could probe the interplay of QM and GR [4]. We also described a rule for “clock complementarity”, which we deduce theoretically and verify experimentally [5]. In the clock interferometer, we have observed phase jumps due to the existence of a geometric phase [6]. Furthermore, we realized Stern-Gerlach interferometry [7-10] despite several theoretical works which have shown over the years that fundamental barriers exist.
I will give a brief description of atom chip technology, and will then describe several fundamental and industrial applications. I will conclude with an outlook concerning ideas for possible tests of exotic physics such as quantum gravity [11].

[1] M. Keil et al., “Fifteen years of cold matter on the atom chip: Promise, realizations and prospects”, Journal of Modern Optics 63, 1840 (2016).
[2] S. Zhou et al., “Robust spatial coherence 5mm from a room temperature atom-chip”, Phys. Rev. A 93, 063615 (2016).
[3] Y. Japha et al., “Suppression and enhancement of decoherence in an atomic Josephson junction”, New J. Phys. 18, 055008 (2016).
[4] Y. Margalit et al., “A self-interfering clock as a ‘which path’ witness”, Science 349, 1205 (2015).
[5] Z. Zhou et al., “Clock complementarity in the context of general relativity”, Classical and Quantum Gravity 35, 185003 (2018).
[6] Zhifan Zhou, Yair Margalit, Samuel Moukouri, Yigal Meir, and Ron Folman “An experimental test of the geodesic rule proposition for the non-cyclic geometric phase”, Science Advances 6, eaay8345 (2020).
[7] S. Machluf et al., “Coherent Stern-Gerlach momentum splitting on an atom chip”, Nature Communications 4, 2424 (2013).
[8] Y. Margalit et al., “Analysis of a high-stability Stern-Gerlach spatial fringe interferometer”, New J. Phys. 21, 073040 (2019).
[9] O. Amit, Y. Margalit, O. Dobkowski, Z. Zhou, Y. Japha, M. Zimmermann, M. A. Efremov, F. A. Narducci, E. M. Rasel, W. P. Schleich, R. Folman. “T3 Stern-Gerlach matter-wave interferometer”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 083601 (2019).
[10] Mark Keil, Shimon Machluf, Yair Margalit, Zhifan Zhou, Omer Amit, Or Dobkowski, Yonathan Japha, Samuel Moukouri, Daniel Rohrlich, Zina Binstock, Yaniv Bar-Haim, Menachem Givon, David Groswasser, Yigal Meir, Ron Folman, “Stern-Gerlach Interferometry with the Atom Chip”, Invited review paper, in a book in honor of Otto Stern (Springer), (2021).
[11] Yair Margalit, Or Dobkowski, Zhifan Zhou, Omer Amit, Yonathan Japha, Samuel Moukouri, Daniel Rohrlich, Anupam Mazumdar, Sougato Bose, Carsten Henkel, Ron Folman, “Realization of a complete Stern-Gerlach interferometer: Towards a test of quantum gravity”, Science advances 7, eabg2879 (2021).



Leeor Kronik (WIS)
Invited Speaker

Understanding collective effects that drive molecular spintronic devices

Molecular spintronic devices often involve collective effects, i.e., phenomena that the individual molecule or leads comprising the device do not exhibit. Understanding such effects often forces us to bridge two different “world views” – that of molecular orbital theory, which underlies much of chemistry, and that of delocalized electron waves, which underlies much of solid-state physics. Here, I will review our recent progress in understanding some novel classes of collective spintronic effects from first principles. I will focus on analysis and/or prediction of specific experiments, with an emphasis on the “fingerprints” that collective effects leave in experimental data.



Yaakov Tischler (BIU)
Contributed Speaker

Low-Frequency Raman to Characterize Layered Materials

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for identifying chemicals and characterizing materials. Raman spectra can provide insight into numerous properties, including morphology, stress/strain, crystallinity, doping level, conductivity, local temperature, and polarizability, whether in bulk, thin film, monolayer or nanostructure form. Raman spectroscopy finds applications in physical sciences, life sciences, medicine, drug discovery, and semiconductor metrology. Due to instrumental limitations associated with filtering out the incident laser from being detected by the spectrometer, the Raman spectrum is typically obtained for Raman shifts of 100 cm-1 away from the laser up to 3500 cm-1, which is more than sufficient range to capture the whole "chemical fingerprint region". Modern laser filters, based on volume holographic gratings amongst other approaches now make it relatively straightforward to obtain Raman spectra from 100 cm-1 down to 5 cm-1. In this low-frequency spectral range, the Raman scattering is sensitive to the phonon dispersion relation and vibrational modes associated with the nanostructure of the material. Here we present applications of Low Frequency Raman Spectroscopy (LFR) to characterize nanoscale layered materials, chiral purity of organic crystals and formulations, biomolecular assemblies, hybrid organo-metallic perovskites, and metal-organic frameworks. We show how the LF-Raman spectrum can be related to the mechanical vibrational modes that are present at the molecular level, and discuss our recent efforts to link LF-Raman to topographic features characterized by AFM.



Subhrajit Mukherjee (Technion)
Contributed Speaker

Opto-Electronic Modulation of the Monolithically Integrated Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Heterojunction for Multibit Memory devices

In recent years, ferroelectric-semiconductor (FS) heterojunctions are drawn massive interest in the field of multifunctional nanoelectronics, such as phototransistor, memory, data processing, neuromorphic computing etc.[1,2] Furthermore, the stable remnant polarization with unique in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OOP) dipole coupling down to the monolayer limit (~1.2 nm) in In2Se3 becomes the central attention of ferroelectric research interest. The strong light-sensitivity towards visible-to-near-infrared illumination also making it attractive for photoactive applications. Herein, we demonstrated a scalable and site-specific direct writing approach on few-layers of indium selenide (In2Se3) to creat the In2Se3-In2O3 coplanar heterojunction using scanning visible-laser probe. The locally converted region was thoroughly characterized by in-depth microscopic (HRTEM, AFM and KPFM) and spectroscopic (Raman, PL and ToF-SIMS) means to understand the conversion dynamics.[3] Furthermore, the fabricated planar heterojunction has been utilized as self-powered broadband photodetector by using the built-in interfacial potential along with the ferroelectric field in In2Se3. The heterojunction exhibits superior photoresponsivity (857 A/W) without any external bias.[3] In addition, the ferroelectric polarization states in α-In2Se3 are utilized to control the device characteristics and thereby used to realize non-volatile memory (NVM). The state-of-art multibit logic device was demonstrated by utilizing the polarization directions dependent opto(electronic) output currents. The presented process enables a promising technological prospect to make all 2D lateral heterojunctions construction and could provide a platform for realizing wafer-scale integration of nanoscale devices with multiple advanced functionalities.

[1] C. Cui et al., Nano Lett. 18, 1253 (2018).
[2] S. M. Poh et al., Nano Lett. 18, 6340 (2018).
[3] S. Mukherjee et al., ACS Nano, 14, 12, 17543–17553 (2020).



Roundtable Discussion


Future of Electronics
Moderator: Yossi Paltiel (HUJI)
Panel members: Uriel Levi (HUJI)




Our Sponsors


IVS-IPSTA 2021 - 39th Annual Conference
November 17, 2021 | ONLINE

Conference Organizing Team

Gilbert Daniel Nessim (IVS President, BIU) | Ilya Grinberg (BIU) | Haim Barak (BIU)

Tatyana Bendikov (WIS) | Elad Koren (Technion) | Muhammad Bashouti (BGU) 
Noa Lachman-Senesh (TAU) | Igal Kronhaus (Technion)
Sharon Waichman (NRCN, Rotem Industries)